Small boroughs punctuate the land, alternating with lush farmed land and small areas of wild vegetation, still untouched. The rural landscape is marked by beautiful villas, vacation houses for aristocratic families from Pisa and Florence. Each with its own history and architecture, antique mansions obtained from fortalices, often filled with art works, they are an unmistakable sign of agricultural organization based on sharecropping which characterized the Valdera area in the past decades; noble homes, they were a focal point in that organic economic cycle.

They are sorrounded by gorgeous parks which enhance their architecture. The farmhouses mark the spaces between each property. The villas are homogeneously distributed in the Park, and it’s not easy to choose an example: from the beautiful San Marco residence, rich in history, to the equally prestigious Alessandri di Cedri villa; from the exquisite Medici-Corsini villa in Spadaletto to the wonderful Villa di Monti, without forgetting the Gotti Lega in Capannoli. And how not to mention the quaint Celli residence, or the architectural ensamble in Usigliano, Collelungo, Villa Saletta, Pratello and Casanova?

The many steeples which rise over the land, almost always of fine workmanship, trace the several human settlements which even in remote times made the landscape anthropized. There are many evidences of past times, especially of medieval times: the urban structure, the narrow alleys coming from the main streets, parts of old stone pavements, some house facedes in terracotta, the arches of old doorways used to access the centres of town… the landscape is complemented by quaint boroughs, small agglomerates of countryside houses.

In the typically hilly landscape we can discern the areas of Chianni, Rivalto and Orciatico, in which, because of the higher altitude, the boroughs becomes more like mountain villages.